Research for Development and Justice
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Themes:
Democracy and Governance

Geographic focus:
Africa: Sub Saharan Africa, in particular Namibia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi.

Professor Lise Rakner

Senior Researcher (20%)
(Professor of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen)

E-mail: lise.rakner@cmi.no

Phone: +47 47938052

Mob: +47 95705076

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Political scientist focusing on the issues of democratisation and human rights, economic reform, taxation, institutional change and international aid, with a particular emphasis on Southern and Eastern Africa.

Her current research interests concern electoral administration and party developments in Sub-Saharan Africa and more generally the relationship between political and economic processes of reform, accountability and the development of political institutions.

Rakner has served as consultant for NORAD, SIDA, DFID, the World Bank, and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. As of September 2006, Rakner works  as a Professor of Comparative Politics (50 %) at the University of Bergen.

Lise Rakner's publications in Cristin

Books and Anthologies

Politics in the developing world. 3rd ed.
Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall and Lise Rakner, eds. (2011)
Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press 537 p.

Electoral Democracy in Uganda. Understanding Institutional Processes and Outcomes of the 2006 Multiparty Elections
Julius Kiiza, Sabiti Makara and Lise Rakner (Eds.) (2008)
Kampala: Fountain Publishers 302 p.

Globalization and Democratization: Challenges for Political Parties. Essays in Honor of Lars Svåsand
Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (eds.) (2007)
Bergen: Fagbokforlaget 261 p.

Political and Economic Liberalisation in Zambia 1991-2001
Lise Rakner (2003)
Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute 235 p.

Journal Articles

Institutionalizing the pro-democracy movements: the case of Zambia's movement for multiparty democracy
Lise Rakner (2011)
in Democratization vol. 18 no. 5 pp. 1106-1124

In search of the impact of international support for political parties in new democracies: Malawi and Zambia compared
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2010)
in Democratization vol. 17 no. 6 pp. 1250-1275

Valgets politikk: Betydningen av administrative virkemidler for å beholde makten i Malawi og Uganda
Lise Rakner og Lars Svåsand (2009)
in Politica - Tidsskrift for Politisk Videnskab vol. 41 no. 3 pp. 268-282

Opposition weakness in Africa
Lise Rakner and Nicolas van de Walle (2009)
in Journal of Democracy vol. 20 no. 3 pp. 108-121

Turnaround: The national resistance movement and the reintroduction of a multiparty system in Uganda
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2009)
in International Political Science Review vol. 30 no. 2 pp. 185-204

Hybrid Regimes and the Challenges of Deepening and Sustaining Democracy in Developing Countries
Alina Rocha Menocal and Veen Fritz with Lise Rakner (2008)
in South African Journal of International Affairs vol. 15 no. 1 pp. 29-40

Fissions and Fusions, Foes and Friends
Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand, Nixon S. Khembo (2007)
in Comparative Political Studies vol. 40 no. 9 pp. pp1112-1137

Stuck in Transition: Electoral Processes in Zambia 1991-2001.
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2005)
in Democratization vol. 12 no. 1 February pp. 85-105

From dominant to competitive party system: The Zambian experiences 1991-2001
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2004)
in Party Politics vol. 10 no. 1 pp. 49-68

The quality of electoral processes: Zambian election 1991-2001
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2003)
in African Social Research vol. 2000/2001 no. nos. 45/46 pp. 1-23

Political processes in the context of multilateral elections in Zambia . Part one. Special issue.
Lise Rakner et al., ed. (2003)
in African Social Research vol. 2000/ 2001 no. nos. 45/46 198 p.

Accountability through tax reform? Reflections from Sub-Saharan Africa
Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (2002)
in IDS Bulletin vol. 33 no. 3 pp. 30-40

Business associations and growth coalitions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Lise Rakner, Deborah Bräutigam and Scott Taylor (2002)
in The Journal of Modern African Studies vol. 40 no. 4 pp. 519-547

The politics of revenue mobilisation: Explaining continuity in Namibian tax policies
Lise Rakner (2001)
in Forum for Development Studies vol. 28 no. 1 pp. 125-145

The pluralist paradox: The decline of economic interest groups in Zambia in the 1990s
Lise Rakner (2001)
in Development and Change vol. 32 no. 3 pp. 521-543

Økonomiske og sosiale rettigheter i en global verden. En diskusjon av Asbjørn Eides "Making human rights universal: achievements and prospects"
Lise Rakner, Astri Suhrke (2001)
in Mennesker og rettigheter no. 2

Is rational choice institutionalism useful for development studies?
Lise Rakner (1995)
in Forum for development studies no. 1 pp. 77-94

Political transition and economic reform. The role of labour in Zambian national politics
Lise Rakner (1993)
in Forum for Development Studies no. 2 pp. 131-147

Er menneskerettigheter universelle?
Lise Rakner (1993)
in Tidens tegn vol. 1 no. 5 pp. 34-36

Book Chapters

Grabbing an Election: Abuse of State Resources in the 2011 Elections in Uganda
Svein-Erik Helle, Lise Rakner (2014)
in Tina Søreide, Aled Williams: Corruption, Grabbing and Development: Real World Challenges. Cheltenham and Northamption (MA): Edward Elgar Publishing

I pose og sekk? Klima i norsk utviklingspolitikk etter 2005
Siri Gloppen, Svein-Erik Helle og Lise Rakner (2012)
in Elling N. Tjønneland, red.: Nye stormakter i Afrika. Utvikling eller utbytting?. Oslo: Scandinavian Academic Press/Spartacus pp. 271-295

In search of the impact of international support for political parties in new democracies: Malawi and Zambia compared
Lise Rakner, Lars G Svåsand (2011)
in Peter Burnell, André W. M. Gerrits: Promoting party politics in emerging democracies. Routledge pp. 186-210

Assessing the impact of health rights litigation: A comparative analysis of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, India and South Africa
Ottar Mæstad, Lise Rakner and Octavio L. Motta Ferraz (2011)
in Alicia Ely Yamin and Siri Gloppen, eds.: Litigating health rights. Can courts bring more justice to health?. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press pp. 273-303

Governance and aid conditionality in a globalizing world
Lise Rakner, Peter Burnell (2011)
in Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall, Lise Rakner, eds.: Politics in the developing world. Oxford Univ. Press pp. 277-296

Introduction
Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall and Lise Rakner (2011)
in Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall and Lise Rakner, eds.: Politics in the developing world. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press pp. 1-10

Institutional perspectives
Lise Rakner and Vicky Randall (2011)
in Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall and Lise Rakner,eds.: Politics in the developing world. 3rd. ed.. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press pp. 53-70

The management of the 2009 electoral process: The role of the Malawi Electoral Commission
Lise Rakner (2010)
in Martin Ott and Fidelis Edge Kanyongolo, eds.: Democracy in progress. Malawi's 2009 parliamentary and presidential elections. Zomba, Malawi: Kachere (Kachere books no. 48) pp. 25-45

Civil society and human security: a conceptual note
Lise Rakner (2009)
in Ed. by Jonathan Mayuyuka Kaunda and Farai Zizhou: Furthering Southern African integration. Proceedings of the 2008 FOPRISA annual conference (FOPRISA report no. 7). Gaborone: Lightbooks pp. 57-66

Opposition parties and incumbent presidents: the new dynamics of electoral competition in Africa
Lise Rakner and Nicolas van de Walle (2009)
in Ed. by Staffan I. Lindberg: Democratization by elections. A new mode of transition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press pp. 202-225

Conclusion: Reflections on the 2006 Elections in Uganda
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner and Julius Kiiza (2008)
in Julius Kiiza, Sabiti Makara and Lise Rakner (Eds.): Electoral Democracy in Uganda. Understanding the Institutional Processes and Outcomes of the 2006 Multiparty Elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers pp. 287-299

Turnaround: The National Resistance Movement and the Reintroduction of a Multiparty System in Uganda
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2008)
in Julius Kiiza, Sabiti Makara and Lise Rakner (Eds.): Electoral Democracy in Uganda. Understanding the Institutional Processes and Outcomes of the 2006 Multiparty Elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers pp. 262-286

Administering the 2006 Multiparty Elections: The Role of the Electoral Commission
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner and Sabastiano Rwengabo (2008)
in Julius Kiiza, Sabiti Makara and Lise Rakner (Eds.): Electoral Democracy in Uganda. Understanding the Institutional Processes and Outcomes of the 2006 Multiparty Elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers pp. 90-133

The Evolution of International Norms and Standards of Electoral Process
Dorothy Mpabanga and Lise Rakner (2007)
in Jonathan Mayuyuka Kaunda (Ed.): Proceedings of the 2006 FOPRISA Annual Conference. Gaborone: Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis no. 5-19

Opposition Parties in Sub-Saharan Africa
Lise Rakner and Nicolas van de Walle (2007)
in Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (Eds.) : Globalization and Democratization: Challenges for Political Parties. Essays in Honor of Lars Svåsand . Bergen: Fagbokforlaget pp. 91-110

Introduction: Coming to Grips with the Current Predicaments of Political Parties
Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (2007)
in Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (Eds.) : Globalization and Democratization: Challenges for Political Parties. Essays in Honor of Lars Svåsand . Bergen: Fagbokforlaget pp. 11-18

Elections: Systems and Processes
Lise Rakner; Mette Bakken and Nixon S. Khembo (2007)
in Nandini Patel and Lars Gerhard Svåsand: Government and Politics in Malawi. Zomba, Malawi: Centre for Social Research (CSR) and Chr.Michelsen Institute (CMI) pp. 175-206

From Dominant to Competitive Party System. The Zambian Experience 1991-2001
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2005)
in Ivar Kolstad and Hugo Stokke, eds.: Writing Rights: Human Rights Research at the Chr.Michelsen Institute 1984-2004. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget pp. 59-77

Tax reform and democratic accountability in sub-Saharan Africa
Lise Rakner and Siri Gloppen (2003)
in Nicolas van de Walle, Nicole Ball and Vijaya Ramachandran: Beyond structural adjustment: the institutional context of African development . New York, N.Y.: Palgrave MacMillan pp. 77-100

Namibia
Lise Rakner (2002)
in Kristin Mack Alnæs et al. (eds.): Media i Afrika - Afrika i media. Oslo: Solidaritet Forlag pp. 322-323

Zambia
Lise Rakner, Nicolas van de Walle and Dominic Mulaisho (2001)
in Shantayanan Devarajan et al. (eds.): Aid and reform in Africa: Lessons from ten case studies. Washington DC: World Bank pp. 533-623

Namibia
Lise Rakner (2000)
in Fellesrådets Afrika-årbok 2000-2001. Oslo: Solidaritet Forlag pp. 303-304

Zambia og 1990-årenes doble reformagenda
Lise Rakner (1995)
in P.Ekløf (eds.): Fellesrådets Afrika Årbok '95. Tema: Demokrati i Afrika. Oslo: Fellesrådet for Afrika pp. 55-62

Reports

Good Governance, Aid Modalities and Poverty Reduction. From Better Theory to Better Practice
CDD-Ghana, ESRF, ODI, CMI (2008)
London: ODI, CMI, CDD-Ghana, ESRF

Opposition Parties in Sub-Saharan Africa
Lise Rakner and Nicolas van de Walle (2007)
Ithaca NY: Cornell University. Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies (Working paper series no. 12-07) 26 p.

Democratisation's Third Wave and the Challenges of Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy Assistance and Lessons Learned
Lise Rakner, Alina Rocha Menocal, Verena Fritz (2007)
London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI Working Papers no. 1) 62 p.

Understanding Patterns of Accountability in Tanzania. Revised Inception Report
Evelyn Dietche, Tim Kelsall, Siri Lange, Andrew Lawson, Donald Mmari, Lise Rakner and Vibeke Wang (2005)
Bergen/Oxford/Dar es Salaam: Chr. Michelsen Institute/Oxford Policy Management/REPOA - Research on Poverty Alleviation 65 p.

Understanding Patterns of Accountability in Tanzania. Final Synthesis Report
Andrew Lawson and Lise Rakner (2005)
Bergen/Oxford/ Dar es Salaam: Chr. Michelsen Institute/Oxford Policy Management/ REPOA - Research on Poverty Alleviation 42 p.

The budget as theatre - the formal and informal institutional makins of the budget process in Malawi. Final report
Lise Rakner, Luke Mukubvu, Naomi Ngwira, Kimberly Smiddy and Aaron Schneider (2004)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute 54 p.

The Politics of revenue mobilisation: explaining continuity in Namibia tax policies
Lise Rakner (2002)
Windhoek: The Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU working papers no. 86) 30 p.

The politics of revenue mobilisation. Explaining continuity in Namibian tax policies.
Lise Rakner (2002)
Windhoek: NEPRU (NEPRU Working Paper no. 86)

Introduction: The new politics of taxation and accountability in developing countries
Lise Rakner and Mick Moore (2002)
(IDS Bulletin vol. 33 no. 3) pp. 1-9

Taxation, aid and democracy. An agenda for research in Africa
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, with Lise Rakner and Joseph Semboja (2000)
Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research

Reform as a matter of political survival: Political and economic liberalisation in Zambia 1991-1996
Lise Rakner (1998)
Bergen: University of Bergen

CMI Reports

Governance Assessments and the Paris Declaration
Lise Rakner, Vibeke Wang (2007)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2007: 10) 17 p.

The Institutional Context of the 2004 General Elections in Malawi
Siri Gloppen, Edge Kanyongolo, Nixon Khembo, Nandini Patel, Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand, Arne Tostensen and Mette Bakken (2006)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2006: 21) 38 p.

The Accountability Function of Supreme Audit Institutions in Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania
Vibeke Wang and Lise Rakner (2005)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2005: 4)

Poverty reduction strategy processes in Malawi and Zambia
Edgar Bwalya, Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand, Arne Tostensen, Maxton Tsoka (2004)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2004: 8) 33 p. (Commissioned by NORAD)

Taxation and tax reforms in developing countries: Illustrations from sub-Saharan Africa
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, Lise Rakner (2003)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2003:6) 34 p.

Multiparty elections in Africa's new democracies
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2002)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2002:7) 34 p.

Botswana- 30 years of economic growth, democracy and aid: Is there a connection?
Lise Rakner (1996)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 1996:8) 53 p.

Human rights and development. The discourse in the humanities and social sciences
Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (1993)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 1993:3) 103 p.

Trade unions in processes of democratisation. A study of party labour relations in Zamiba
Lise Rakner (1992)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 1992:6) 177 p.

Menneskerettigheter og utviklingsprosesser
Siri Gloppen and Lise Rakner (1991)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 1991:2) 97 p.

CMI Working Papers

The interplay between poverty and electoral authoritarianism: Poverty and political mobilization in Zambia and Uganda
Svein-Erik Helle, Lise Rakner (2012)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2012:3) 22 p.

Administering Uganda's 2006 Multiparty Elections: The Role of the Electoral Commission
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner, Sabastiano Rwengabo (2008)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2008: 5) 16 p.

Turnaround: The National Resistance Movement and the Re-introduction of a Multiparty System in Uganda
Sabiti Makara, Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand (2007)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2007: 12) 18 pp p.

Fissions and fusions, foes and friends: Party system re-structuring in Malawi in the 2004 general elections
Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand (2005)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2005: 6)

Maybe free but not fair: Electoral administration in Malawi 1994-2004
Lise Rakner, Lars Svåsand (2005)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2005: 5) 18 p.

Uncertainty as a strategy: Electoral processes in Zambia 1991-2001
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2003)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2003:13) 21 p.

Responsiveness to the concerns of the poor and accountability to the commitments to poverty reduction
Siri Gloppen, Lise Rakner and Arne Tostensen (2003)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2003:9) 25 p.

The pluralist paradox. The decline of economic interest groups in Zambia in the 1990s
Lise Rakner (2000)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2000:3) 21 p.

Taxation, aid and democracy. An agenda for research in African countries
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad and Ole Therkildsen, with Lise Rakner and Joseph Semboja (2000)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 2000:4)

Rational choice and the problem of institutions. A discussion of rational choice institutionalism and its application by Robert Bates
Lise Rakner (1996)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 1996:6)

Political institutions and economic reform: Zambia and South Africa in comparative context
Lise Rakner and Tor Skålnes (1996)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 1996:5)

Do interest groups matter in economic policy- making? Reflections from a Zambian case study.
Lise Rakner (1994)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper WP 1994:4)

CMI Briefs

Democracy matters more than ever: Democracy assistance after the entrance of the "Emerging Southern Powers" in sub-Saharan Africa
Svein-Erik Helle, Lise Rakner, Helge Rønning (2011)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief vol. 10 no. 5) 4 p.

"No matter how long the winter, spring is sure to follow": The Arab Spring and its effect in sub-Saharan Africa
Svein-Erik Helle, Lise Rakner, Helge Rønning (2011)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief vol. 10 no. 4) 4 p.

Do elections imply democracy or autocracy?
Lise Rakner, Helge Rønning (2010)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief vol. 9 no. 2) 4 p.

International Democracy Assistance: Key Lessons
Lise Rakner, Alina Rocha Menocal, Verena Fritz (2007)
Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief vol. 6 no. 5) 4 p.

Other External Publications

Fighting Poverty in Africa: Are PRSPs Making a Difference? Edited by David Booth
Lise Rakner (2005)
in Journal of Modern African Studies vol. 43 no. 3 pp. 492-493

Skattepolitikk i Tanzania på 1900-tallet: Samspillet mellom staten, interessegrupper og bistandsaktørene
Lise Rakner (2001)
in Den Ny Verden vol. 34 no. 3 pp. 79-93

Conference Papers/ Presentations

The management of the 2009 elections: The role of the Malawi Electoral Commission.
Lise Rakner (2009)
Presented at: GTZ/UNDP conference "Malawi's 2009 Parliamentary and Presidential Elections: Democracy in Progress, June 21-24, Lilongwe

The impact of international support for political parties in new democracies: Malawi and Zambia compared
Lise Rakner (2009)
Presented at: European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) 5th General Conference, 3-5 September, Potsdam

The politics of elections (or why incumbents remain in office). the cases of Malawi and Uganda
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2007)
Presented at: Workshop "Democratization by Elections", University of Florida, November 29-December 1, 2007

Opposition Parties in Sub-Saharan Africa
Lise Rakner and Nicolas van de Walle (2007)
Presented at: Annual Conference of the Norwegian Association for Development Research, Bergen, Norway 5-7 November 2007

Fissions and Fusions, Foes and Friends. Party system restructuring in the Malawi 2004 elections
Lise Rakner and Lars Svåsand (2005)
Presented at: Norwegian Association of Political Science Annual meeting, January 5-7

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Politiske partier i Afrika.
Lise Rakner (2007)
Seminar for analyseenheten i UD 28. august 2007

Taxation, aid and democracy: The evolution of tax systems in Namibia, Tanzania and Uganda
Start: Nov. 1999 (Completed)
Geography: Africa: Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda.

[Norad: Notat om MR- og demokratiforskning til Norads res.rap.2014 ]
Start: Aug. 2014 (Completed)
Keywords: Aid, democratisation, human rights, human rights indicators and indices

Democratisation, Political Participation, and Gender in Malawi
Start: Jan. 2014 (Current)
Keywords: Democratisation, participation, gender
Geography: Malawi

Taxation, Institutions and Participation (TIP): The dynamics of capital flows from Africa
Start: Feb. 2014 (Current)
Keywords: Capital flight, tax havens, taxation, institutions, lobbying, citizen participation
Geography: Angola, Tanzania, Zambia

Litigating the Right to Health
Start: Jan. 2008 (Completed)
Keywords: Health rights, courts, health rights litigation, public interest litigation, social rights jurisprudence, health policy, health economics, medical ethics, priority setting
Geography: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, South Africa

Elections and Democracy in Africa
Start: Nov. 2009 (Completed)
Keywords: Liberation movements, pro-democray movements, Africa, elections, democracy
Geography: Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Eval. of coop. between Office of Auditor General of Norway and National Audit Office in Malawi
Start: May. 2013 (Completed)
Keywords: Supreme audit institutions, accountability, integrity
Geography: Norway Malawi

Transition to what? African liberation- and pro-democracy movements' troubled democratic heritage
Start: Nov. 2008 (Completed)
Keywords: sub-saharan africa, liberation movements, democratic transitions, media, elections, political parties, the judiciary
Geography: Zambia, Malawi, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Zimbabawe, Tanzania

CMI
CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute)
Phone: +47 47 93 80 00 - From abroad: +47 55 70 55 65
Fax: +47 47 93 80 01
E-mail: cmi@cmi.no - Web: www.cmi.no
P.O.Box 6033 Bedriftssenteret, N-5892 Bergen, Norway
Visiting address: Jekteviksbakken 31, Bergen