The University of Bergen and CMI have a long history of cooperation with research institutions in Sudan, primarily the University of Khartoum and Ahfad University for Women. Such cooperation includes competence and capacity building as well as a focus on producing new knowledge relevant for building peace in the country. After the secession of South Sudan in 2011, new efforts have started to build academic bridges between Sudan and South Sudan, focusing on regional universities but involving as well researchers from national universities. The overall objective is to enhance the quality and relevance of teaching and research in regional universities. As part of the program, research is carried out on a number of topics which are deemed important for lasting peace and development within and between the two countries. Efforts are also made to influence policy debates and improve the basis for decision making in both countries as well as among international actors. Because of the return to war in South Sudan, activities are on hold there for the time being.



Featured publications:

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Arenas for Women’s Political Participation: State Feminism, Political Parties, Women’s (non)Movements

Liv Tønnessen (2014) DSRI, University of Khartoum 17.06.2014

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Women’s Substantive Representation in Sudan’s National Assembly 2005-2013

Liv Tønnessen (2014) DSRI, University of Khartoum 18.06.2014

Conference Paper / Presentation

The History of the Women's Movement in Sudan

Samia al-Nagar and Liv Tønnessen (2014) Presented at: AFRICAN WOMEN LEADING TRANSFORMATION ",Ahfad University for Women , Sudan, 3-4 March 2014

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Research design

Liv Tønnessen (2014) DSRI, University of Khartoum 19.06.2014

Popular Presentations and Lectures

International framework on women''s political participation and representation

Liv Tønnessen (2014) DSRI, University of Khartoum 16.06.2014

Conference Paper / Presentation

When Rape Becomes Politics: Negotiating Islamic Law Reform in Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2014) Presented at: Law and Society Association: Law and Inequalities: Global and Local

Newspaper Article

Pynt og prakt, lite makt

Vibeke Wang, Liv Tønnessen (2014) Bergens Tidende 12.05

Report in External Series

Return to war in South Sudan

Gunnar M. Sørbø (2014) Oslo: NOREF Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre (Policy Brief no. April 2014) 4 p.

Report in External Series

Complex realities and astute actors: Sudanese women's activism and UN Security Council Resolution 1325

Liv Tønnessen (2014) Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center (NOREF) (Expert comments)

CMI Report

Food securities and social conflict

Johan Helland,Gunnar M. Sørbø (2014) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2014:01) 25 p.

Conference Paper / Presentation

Family Law Reform in Post-Conflict Sudan: Competing Claims for Gender Justice between Sharia and Women's Human Rights

Samia al-Nagar and Liv Tønnessen (2013) Presented at: Regime Change and the Participation of Women in Decision-Making" 7-8 of December 2013, Center for Arab Women forTraining and Research, Tunisia

Conference Paper / Presentation

Between Sharia and Human Rights: Sudanese Women's Strategies for Criminal Law Reform

Liv Tønnessen (2013) Presented at: Ida Blom conference, October 14 and 15 2013

Conference Paper / Presentation

Women's Sexual and reproductive rights in Sudan: Rape, early marriage and Female Genital Mutilation: What's Islam got to do with it?

Liv Tønnessen (2013) Presented at: The Legal Battlefield of Sexual and Reproductive Rights: Drivers, Dynamics and Health Consequences? at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, September 22, 2013.

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Kvinner og den arabiske våren

(2013) Historiedagene på Songdal 05.05.2013

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Kvinners rettigheter og den arabiske våren: To steg tilbake heller enn ett fremover?

Liv Tønnessen (2013) Lillehammer Yrkeskvinners Klubb 31.01.2013

Edited Book

Special Issue: "Drivers of Justice"

Elin Skaar and Astri Suhrke (2013) (Nordic Journal of Human Rights vol. 31 no. 2) 117-288 p.

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Making unity unattractive: The conflicting aims of Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Lovise Aalen (2013) in Civil Wars vol. 15 no. 2 pp. 173-191

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Justice by Default? Dealing with Accountability Issues in Sudan

Gunnar M. Sørbø and Abdel Ghaffar Ahmad (2013) in Nordic Journal of Human Rights vol. 31 no. 2 pp. 224-247

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

The Women's Quota in Conflict Ridden Sudan: Ideological Battles for and against Gender Equality

Liv Tønnessen and Samia al-Nagar (2013) in Women's Studies International Forum vol. Volume 41 no. Part 2 pp. 122-131

Book Chapter


Liv Tønnessen (2013) in Sigrun Johnstad: Afrikas 99%. Økonomisk vekst, ulikhet og protest. Oslo: Fellesrådet for Afrika, Solidaritet Forlag

Book Chapter

Between Sharia and CEDAW in Sudan: Islamist women negotiating gender equity

Liv Tønnessen (2013) in Rachel Sieder and John McNeish: Gender Justice and Legal Pluralities: Latin American and African Perspectives. New York: Routledge-Cavendish

Newspaper Op-Ed

Trøbbel på Nilen

Gunnar M. Sørbø (2013) Morgenbladet 22.11

Conference Paper / Presentation

Women's political representation

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Presented at: Conference on Women in Public Life at Center for Women's Studies, at Jordan University in Amman, Jordan, November 25-28, 2012.

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Konflikt i Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Presentasjon for studenter fra sjøkrigsskolen 25.10.2012

Conference Paper / Presentation

Between Sharia and CEDAW in Sudan: Islamist women negotiating gender equity

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Presented at: American Anthropology Association, November 14-18 2012 in San Fransisco

Newspaper Article


Gunnar M. Sørbø (2012) Morgenbladet 19.-25. oktober 2012

Newspaper Article

Ettåring i faresonen

Gunnar M. Sørbø (2012) Morgenbladet 06.-12.07. 2012

Conference Paper / Presentation

Civil society and the armed forces

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Presented at: Agents or Guardians:Military-civilian relations in Latin America and the Middle East

Conference Paper / Presentation

Islam and State in Moderation? Post-Islamism in Sudan (1989-2011)

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Presented at: Sudan workshop, Chr. Michelsen Institutt (CMI), 16th and 17th of January 2012

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Kvinnepolitikk i Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2012) Religionsvitenskap

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

More complex conflict drivers than environment and climate

Gunnar M. Sørbø (2012) in New Routes vol. 17 no. 2 pp. 38-41

Book Chapter

Freedom of religion in Sudan

Anne Sofie Roald (2012) in Ed. by Anh Nga Longva and Anne Sofie Roald: Religious minorities in the Middle East. Domination, self-empowerment, accomodation. Leiden/Boston: Brill pp. 149-170

Report in External Series

From impunity to prosecution? Sexual violence in Sudan beyond Darfur

Liv Tønnessen (2012) (NOREF Report, February 2012)

CMI Report

Will the Sudanese paradox continue? Insecure investment climate and substantial foreign direct investment inflows

Hassan Ali Gadkarim (2012) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Sudan Report SR 2012:1) 33 p.

Popular Presentations and Lectures

How to account for the centrality of contests relating to women's rights in projects of Islamization?

Liv Tønnessen (2011) Trial lecture, University of Bergen December 1, 2011

Popular Presentations and Lectures

From impunity to prosecution

Liv Tønnessen (2011) Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs November 11, 2011

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Kvinnekamp i Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2011) NORAD January 26, 2011

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Sharia: Hva er Islamsk lov?

Liv Tønnessen (2011) Senioruniversitetet, Fana kulturhus November 8, 2011

Popular Presentations and Lectures

Women's fight against violence and for justice in northern Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2011) Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman Sudan May 16, 2011

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Better the devil you know? Chinese foreign direct investment in Africa

Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wiig (2011) in Journal of African Business vol. 12 no. 1 pp. 31-50

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Nye utfordringer til islamsk feminisme: Kvinneaktivismens mange ansikter i Sudan og Iran

Marianne Bøe and Liv Tønnessen (2011) in Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning vol. 4 no. 4 pp. 327-342

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Beyond numbers? Women's 25% parliamentary quota in post-conflict Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2011) in Journal of Peace, Conflict and Development vol. 17 pp. 43-62

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Feminist interlegalities and gender justice in Sudan: The debate on CEDAW and Islam

Liv Tønnessen (2011) in Religion and Human Rights: An International Journal vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 25-39

Report in External Series

Sudan country case study: Child rights

Samia al-Nagar and Liv Tønnessen (2011) Sida (UTV Working Paper no. 2011:3) (Commissioned by Norad and Sida)

Report in External Series

Supporting child rights. Synthesis of lessons learned in four countries

Arne Tostensen, Hugo Stokke, Sven Trygged and Kate Halvorsen (2011) Stockholm: Sida (Joint Evaluation no. 2011:1) 258 p.

CMI Report

Nationality and citizenship questions in Sudan after the Southern Sudan referendum vote

Munzoul A.M. Assal (2011) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (Sudan Report SR 2011: 1) 15 p.

Conference Paper / Presentation

Bargaining with patriarchy in Sudan: The art of reimagining Islam

Liv Tønnessen (2010) Presented at: Transnational/Global Feminism: Issues, Contestations, Challenges

Conference Paper / Presentation

The Moderation of the Islamist Movement in Sudan

Liv Tønnessen (2010) Presented at: The annual norwegian political science conference

Journal Article (Peer-Reviewed)

Local violence and international intervention in Sudan

Gunnar M. Sørbø (2010) in Review of African Political Economy vol. 37 no. 124 pp. 173-186

CMI Report

Learning to build a sustainable peace: Ownership and everyday peacebuilding

Ole Jacob Sending (ed.) (2010) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report R 2010:4)

CMI Working Paper

Oil, peace and development: The Sudanese impasse

Hassan Ali Gadkarim (2010) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (Sudan Working Paper SWP 2010: 2) 31 p.

CMI Working Paper

Sudan peace agreements: Current challenges and future prospects

Abdel Ghaffar Mohamed Ahmad (2010) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Working Paper SWP 2010: 1) 17 p.

CMI Brief

The Paradox of Representation in Sudan: Muslim Women's Diverging Agendas

Liv Tønnessen, Hilde Granås Kjøstvedt (2010) Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief vol. 9 no. 1) 4 p.

Newspaper Op-Ed

Utenriksanalyse: Vestlig press styrker Bashir

Ingrid Samset (2010) Morgenbladet 16-22 April

Conference Paper / Presentation

Power and the Gendered Interview: Bargaining with Patriarchy

Liv Tønnessen (2009) Presented at: Sharia and Human Rights

Munzoul Assal
Professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Khartoum

Abdel Ghaffar Ahmed
Professor of Development Studies, Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, University of Khartoum
Social anthropologist whose research covers topics related to political, social and economic development of Africa in general and Sudan and the Horn of Africa in particular.

Gunnar M. Sørbø
Senior researcher, CMI
Gunnar M. Sørbø holds a PhD in Social Anthropology and is a Senior Researcher and former Director of Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI).

Liv Tønnessen
Senior Researcher, CMI
Political scientist whose interests include Islamic law reform, Islamism/Salafism, women''''s movements, women''''s political representation, and human rights.

Lovise Aalen
Senior Researcher, CMI
Political scientist whose research focuses on democratisation and human rights in the Horn of Africa.

Nagla Mohamed Bashir
Director at the Peace Studies and Community Development Centre, University of Nyala
Dr. Nagla Mohamed Bashir is Director of the Peace Studies and Research Centre at the University of Nyala. Her research focuses on agricultural economics, environmental issues and conflict.

Mariam Ali Onaur Abdalla
Director at the Women Research Center, Red Sea University
Dr. Mariam Ali Onaur Abdalla is Director of the Center for women's studies at Red Sea University. She focuses on women's empowerment, economic development and political participation.

Leif Manger
Professor, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen

Abdallah Shingray Red Sea College

Alteyib Mahamedeen Kassala University

Hussein Suliman Gedaref University

Abdelaziz Abbaker Blue Nile University

Abdelmageed Yahya Dilling University

Recommended resources:

Truth and Dignity Commission South Sudan Law Society, Deng

National dialogue in Sudan: experiences and challenges Sudan Democracy First Group, El-Battahani

From recovery and state building to a new humanitarian emergency Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium, Maxwell & Santschi

From Liberation Movement to Government The Brenthurst Foundation, Clapham

Why is South Sudan where it is today? Luka Biong Deng

CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute)
Phone: +47 47 93 80 00 - From abroad: +47 55 70 55 65
Fax: +47 47 93 80 01
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