Peacebuilding in Sudan: Micro- Macro Issues

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Scenarios for South Sudan in 2020


Although a peace agreement that includes important steps to build a stable and peaceful South Sudan was signed in 2015, the future of the country remains highly uncertain. The scenarios described in this report are intended to give a picture of how South Sudan might look in 2020, determined by three key uncertainties: peace/conflict, good governance/bad governance, and decentralisation/central governance.

Poverty and Currency Floating in South Sudan

The Sudd Institute, Augustino Ting Mayai

As South Sudan attempts to escape fragility through the Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCISS), guaranteeing decent economic access to all its citizens demands primacy. The new policy, however, falls short of this objective, argues Augustino Ting Mayai in this weekly review from the Sudd Institute.

We have lived too long to be deceived

Rift Valley Institute, Juba University Lectures

In December 2013, South Sudan descended into conflict. Peace initiatives over the following eighteen months culminated in an agreement between government and armed opposition, signed in August 2015. While the agreement came into effect in late 2015, many uncertainties surround its implementation. Do previous conflicts and agreements hold useful lessons?

Civil war and a fledgling peace renders inevitable the national democratic revolution

Peter Adwok Nyaba

The people of South Sudan won their independence on July 9, 2011 after nearly five decades of relentless struggle against the oppressive regimes of the Sudan. Barely three years into independence, South Sudan found itself in another devastating civil war following the eruption of conflict on December 15, 2013. What happened, asks Peter Adwok Nyaba.

Political Parties and the Push for Political Consensus

The Sudd Institute, Abraham Awolich

South Sudan's constitution advocates for a plural nation based on multi-party democracy in the pursuit of a higher societal objective. The Agreement on the Resolution of Crisis in South Sudan (ARCISS), though inadequate in many ways, provides an opportunity to pause, reconfigure, and regain the vital signs of a viable nation. The political parties play a critical role in articulating different policy positions on different national objectives.

The Mediation Pendulum and the Challenges that Underlie the Peace Implementation in South Sudan

The Sudd Institute, Abraham Awolich

This paper from the Sudd Institute assesses the mediation process in South Sudan and makes a number of actionable recommendations on the implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of Crisis that was signed in August 2015.

CSOs/CBOs and faith-based organizations-led peace and reconciliation efforts

The Sudd Institute, Leben Nelson Moro

While faith-based organizations have made significant contributions to peace and reconciliation efforts in the country, the CSOs have not done much. A key reason for this is the reluctance of the warring parties to include other stakeholders in peace talks. Possible actions to enhance their roles include increasing pressure on the warring parties and building capacities of these organizations through sustained funding and training.

Protecting some of the people some of the time

International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI)

The outbreak of war in South Sudan on 15 December 2013 saw an abrupt change in the trajectory of peacekeeping in the country. It has forced the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to adapt from a predominant focus on peacebuilding to protecting civilians from mass atrocity.

The Role of Women in Peace-Building in South Sudan

The Sudd Institute, Nyathon James Hoth Mai

This brief explores why women's role in peace-building is critical in South Sudan, and argues that the current peace-building phase offers an opportunity for promoting gender equity, advancing the position of women in the society, mainstreaming women's perspectives in all the pillars of peace-building and increasing their participation in leadership.

Fields of Control: Oil and (In)security in Sudan and South Sudan

Small Arms Survey, HSBA Working Paper, Laura M. James

Since late 2013, relations between Sudan and South Sudan have been unusually cooperative, based on a common interest in keeping the oil flowing. This rapprochement remains vulnerable, however, not only to potential economic pressures and new disputes when the oil agreement expires at the end of 2016, but also to cross-border aspects of ongoing civil strife in both countries, combined with local tensions, argues Laura M. James in this working paper from HSBA.

The legacy of Kokora in South Sudan

SSLS, UPEACE Centre The Hague, Pax, Willems & Deng

This briefing paper presents the findings of a historical case study on Kokora, a word associated with the decentralization policy enacted in southern Sudan in 1983. The policy divided the semi-autonomous Southern Region in Sudan, into three smaller administrative regions.

Legacies of Enforced Disappearances in South Sudan

SSLS, UPEACE Centre The Hague, Pax, Willems & Deng

This briefing paper by David Deng and Rens Willems examines the legacy of enforced disappearances that occurred during the 22-year war in South Sudan.

Justice and Conflict in South Sudan

SSLS, UPEACE Centre The Hague, Pax, Willems & Deng

The preliminary findings presented in this paper are intended to stimulate research and debate on the needs and opportunities for justice and reconciliation in South Sudan. High incidence rates for violent crimes were evident in the sample population. At which levels of society do people think that reconciliation efforts should be undertaken? And which court should bring cases against those suspected for crimes?

The Role of Media in War and Peace in South Sudan

The Sudd Institute, Jok Madut Jok

Much of the commentary in the media and the news reporting in South Sudan tends to be partisan either supporting the government or the opposition. It also tends to take a regional or ethnic line. Consequently, such stances have negatively affected the objectivity of the reporting and weakened the media's role as a vital instrument for democracy, justice, and accountability, argues Jok Madut Jok in this policy brief from the Sudd Institute.

The South Sudanization of the Petroleum Industry Through Local Content

The Sudd Institute, Nhial Tiitmamer

In an attempt to indigenize the petroleum industry, the South Sudanese government enacted the Petroleum Act in 2012 with local content provisions. This paper from the Sudd Institute assesses the progress of the implementation of these local content provisions.

A Fractious Rebellion: Inside the SPLM-IO

Small Arms Survey, HSBA Working Paper, John Young

If the SPLM political elite and the SSDF generals do not develop means to not only co-exist but work together, the organization could collapse. This might be welcome news for the enemies of the SPLM-IO, but it would be messy, violent, make the conflict more difficult to resolve, probably be long lasting, give rise to demands for Nuer secession, make large areas of South Sudan ungovernable, and encourage even more regional meddling in the country, warns John Young in this HSBA Working Paper.

Third-class citizens: Women and citizenship in Sudan

SIHA Network, SIHA Paper

The struggle for women's equal citizenship rights and entitlements in Sudan remains to be led and often raised by Sudanese women's movements. Nonetheless, the women's movement struggles with layers of obstacles such as the limited space for civil activism that presents a major hindrance, in addition to women's movement challenges of technical capacity and poor access resources.

Untangling the Deal Breakers

The Sudd Institute, Nhial Tiitmamer

On 17 August, the SPLM in Opposition (SPLM-IO) and other stakeholders, including the SPLM Leaders (Former Detainees), civil society organizations, and faith-based groups, signed a South Sudanese Peace Agreement. However, the deal remains nonbinding until the government signs it.

Two Fronts, One War: Evolution of the Two Areas Conflict

Thos working paper from HSBA tracks the between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army-North (SPLM/A-N) in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. The conflict has now entered its fourth year,taking a horrendous toll on civilians.

South Sudan's Slide into Conflict

Chatham House, Africa Programme

South Sudan's return to violence in December 2013 poses questions about the quality of partnership between donors and fragile and conflict-affected states more broadly. The quality of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the thinness of donor appetite for risk combined to highlight the fatal flaws in the nascent South Sudan's foundations, writes Jeremy Astill-Brown in this report from Chatham House.

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Allahu Akbar: A Friday in Khartoum
I am sipping to my coffee as I am listening to the local imam through the loudspeaker as he addresses his congregation inside the mosque.

Ikke mer fred å få
Ingen viktige fredsavtaler er inngått i verden de siste åtte årene. De fleste «intern-konflikter» er ikke det de gir seg ut for å være. De er deler av internasjonale konfliktsystemer der eksterne aktører spiller helt sentrale roller, skriver Gunnar M. Sørbø i en utenriksanalyse i Morgenbladet.

Recent books in the Resource Centre:

Civil uprisings in modern Sudan - the 'Khartoum Springs' of 1964 and 1985 W.J. Berridge (2015)

Conflict in the Nuba Mountains - from genocide by attrition to the contemporary crisis in Sudan edited by Samuel Totten and Amanda F. Grzyb (2015)

Multidimensional change in Sudan (1989-2011) - reshaping livelihoods, conflicts and identities edited by Barbara Casciarri, Munzoul A.M. Assal and François Ireton (2015)

Gum Arabic - a gift from the bush Abul Gasim Seif el Din (2015)

Sudan's killing fields - political violence and fragmentation edited by Laura Nyantung Beny and Sondra Hale (2015)

Water, civilisation and power in Sudan - the political economy of military-Islamist state building Harry Verhoeven (2015)

På livet løs - med Norsk Folkehjelp i Sør-Sudan Halle Jørn Hanssen ; med forord av Thorvald Stoltenberg og Pa'gan Amum (2015)

Sudan and South Sudan - from one to two Bona Malwal (2015)

Past, present, and future - fifty years of anthropology in Sudan Munzoul A. M. Asal, Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil (2015)

Emerging orders in the Sudans editors, Sandra Calkins, Enrico Ille, Richard Rottenburg (2015)

More recent books in the Resource Centre

CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute)
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