Norwegian aid to Rukwa Region started in 1979 with the planning of a water supply programme aiming at covering most villages and towns. In 1986, a full integrated programme - RUDEP - was initiated based on a longterm vision for improving living standards.  However, Norway decided to wind up the programme already 1995. At its peak RUDEP constitued about two-thirds of public investments in the Region. This study traces impacts of the programme that are recognisable today.