The Argentine Military in Democracy: Moving Beyond Issues of Civilian Control to a Citizen Soldier Paradigm
Argentina’s transition to democracy in 1983 ended decades of cyclical military interventions in politics. Since then a long and complex process of confrontation, incorporation, and, finally, subordination has established democratic civilian control of the armed forces that is more far-reaching than anywhere else in Latin America. Civilian reformers accomplished this through a combination of force restructuring, legal restrictions on military roles, and creation of an increasingly robust defense ministry. In this context, civilian leaders since 2003 have shifted the focus of reform to resocialization of the armed forces — seeking to create “citizen soldiers” appropriate to a modern, socially progressive democracy. Thus institutional restructuring has led to efforts to promote a culture shift in the armed forces. This paper examines Argentina’s process of legal and institutional reform of the military since the 1980s, and then turns to the development of the citizen soldier model through legal, gender, and educational innovations since the mid 2000s. It finds that while this sequence of reforms is promising, bringing a citizenship model to fruition within the armed forces requires sustained commitments from civilian political leaders and civil society. In short, even the “best case” Argentine example reminds us that effective civil-military relations in contemporary democracy require both the institutions of oversight and a political culture that engages the military in the citizenship ideals of the polity.
Everyday humanitarian diplomacy: Experiences from border areas
Cristina Churruca Muguruza
How do host–migrant proximities shape attitudes toward internal climate migrants?
Päivi Lujala, Sosina Bezu, Ivar Kolstad, Minhaj Mahmud, Arne Wiig
Using legal empowerment to curb corruption and advance accountability
The right to abortion in Tunisia after the revolution of 2011: Legal, medical and social arrangements seen through seven abortion stories
Irene Maffi and Malika Affes
Health and Human Rights Journal
What causes Latin America’s high incidence of adolescent pregnancy?
Camila Gianella, Marta Rodriguez de Assis Machado, Angelica Peñas Defago
Transitional Justice in Latin America: The Uneven Road from Impunity towards Accountability
Elin Skaar, Jemima Garcia-Godos, and Cath Collins
Can litigation clean rivers? Assessing the policy impact of "the Mendoza case" in Argentina
Irregular Migration or Human Trafficking? The Realities of Cross-border Population Mobility in Western Sudan
Abdelmageed M. Yahya
The UAE’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: Claiming State Sovereignty, Regional Leverage and International Recognition
A place-based framework for assessing resettlement capacity in the context of climate change induced displacement
Solomon Zena Walelign, Päivi Lujala