The Argentine Military in Democracy: Moving Beyond Issues of Civilian Control to a Citizen Soldier Paradigm
Argentina’s transition to democracy in 1983 ended decades of cyclical military interventions in politics. Since then a long and complex process of confrontation, incorporation, and, finally, subordination has established democratic civilian control of the armed forces that is more far-reaching than anywhere else in Latin America. Civilian reformers accomplished this through a combination of force restructuring, legal restrictions on military roles, and creation of an increasingly robust defense ministry. In this context, civilian leaders since 2003 have shifted the focus of reform to resocialization of the armed forces — seeking to create “citizen soldiers” appropriate to a modern, socially progressive democracy. Thus institutional restructuring has led to efforts to promote a culture shift in the armed forces. This paper examines Argentina’s process of legal and institutional reform of the military since the 1980s, and then turns to the development of the citizen soldier model through legal, gender, and educational innovations since the mid 2000s. It finds that while this sequence of reforms is promising, bringing a citizenship model to fruition within the armed forces requires sustained commitments from civilian political leaders and civil society. In short, even the “best case” Argentine example reminds us that effective civil-military relations in contemporary democracy require both the institutions of oversight and a political culture that engages the military in the citizenship ideals of the polity.
The Armed Forces and the Economy in Latin America: Contemporary Trends and Implications for Civil-Military Relations.
“A Civil-Military Alliance”: The Venezuelan Armed Forces before and during the Chávez era
Iselin Åsedotter Strønen
Between mutual suspicion and fear. Civil-military relations in Mexico
Carlos Antonio Flores Pérez
What causes Latin America’s high incidence of adolescent pregnancy?
Camila Gianella, Marta Rodriguez de Assis Machado, Angelica Peñas Defago
Transitional Justice in Latin America: The Uneven Road from Impunity towards Accountability
Elin Skaar, Jemima Garcia-Godos, and Cath Collins
Can litigation clean rivers? Assessing the policy impact of "the Mendoza case" in Argentina
The Internal Protection Alternative and its Relation to Refugee Status
Research Handbook on International Refugee Law
The “CIA’s Army”: A Threat to Human Rights and an Obstacle to Peace in Afghanistan
Suhrke Astri and Antonio De Lauri