This (open access) article furthers the study of post-civil war memorialisation in Lebanon by analysing the trajectory of the late Prime Minister Rafik Hariri from statesman to martyr. This transformative process offers a window into the symbolism of Lebanese statehood, and demonstrates how the politicisation of confessional martyrs is used to decry injustice and stake out claims to the state. There is no tradition for prosecuting and punishing political murders in Lebanon, causing victims to be pronounced martyrs. Impunity is therefore the major reason why martyrs and memorialising are so widespread. To this end, the article offers a semiotic reading of Hariri's posthumous transformation from political patron to patron saint, and is a contribution towards the importance of martyr symbolism for understanding the purported weakness of Lebanese statehood.
Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL): Impartial or Imposed International Justice?
Are John Knudsen, Sari Hanafi
Nordic Journal of Human Rights
Acquiescence to assassinations in post-civil war Lebanon?
Are John Knudsen
Non-formal girls’ life skills programming Implications for policy and practice
Christina Kwauk, Amanda Braga, Helyn Kim, Kendra Dupuy, Sosina Bezu, Are Knudsen
Life skills in non-formal contexts for adolescent girls in developing countries
Kendra Dupuy, Sosina Bezu, Are Knudsen, Sandra Halvorsen, Christina Kwauk (Brookings Institution), Amanda Braga (Brookings Institution), Helyn Kim (Brookings Institution)
The Great Escape? Converging Refugee Crises in Tyre, Lebanon
Are John Knudsen
Refugee Survey Quarterly
The Internal Protection Alternative and its Relation to Refugee Status
Research Handbook on International Refugee Law
The “CIA’s Army”: A Threat to Human Rights and an Obstacle to Peace in Afghanistan
Suhrke Astri and Antonio De Lauri