Human Rights Forum: Warlords and Human Rights
There are three main strategies for address the problem of 'spoilers' of peace processes :
1) Socialization: the process of building a common normative foundation;
2) Inducement: offering political positions or other alternatives;
3) Coercion: the use of armed force (or the threat thereof).
The three strategies are not mutually exclusive, but may be blended in different ways over the duration of a peace process.
In Afghanistan, the peacebuilding strategy towards the warlords has been a mix of inducement and coercion , aimed at creating a 'strong' central government rather than building a common normative foundation. A warlord declining an official position offered by the government, is confronted with the threat of (international) armed forces.
While this strategy might have prevented the outbreak of a full-fledged war, like in Iraq, the strategy has led to an increased general insecurity , increased drug production, corruption and land disputes and made Afghans gradually loose
faith in their new government.
The Afghan experience challenges common peacebuilding strategies: Can a peaceprocess be sustained if human rights issues, as a key element of a common normative national foundation, are neglected?
There will also be two other presentations:
Professor Ignacio Aymerich from University of Castellon, Spain:
"Human Rights Indicators"
Ottar Mæstad, CMI: "Ethics of Health"