The role of Norway as a bilateral donor in the "conditionality epoch", 1980-2000, is the theme of this thesis. The project examines the factors that led to a shift towards conditionality in Norwegian aid policy in the 1980s and 1990s, including the timing and rationale for this change. The thesis is exploring Norway's actions as a donor; how Norwegian agents and agencies appeared and performed in different aid contexts and in international forums with regard to the issue of conditionality. More, specifically it is investigating how Norway dealt with the conditionality issues vis-a-vis Tanzania and the World Bank. The dissertation is submitted for the Dr. Art. degree in history at the University of Bergen.