Judicial reform has become an increasingly important focus for national governments and international donors, including Norway. This study analyses the role of Norwegian aid to judicial reform in this international context. It has three parts: a theoretical framework to come to grips with the debates on judicial reform; an assessment of lessons from judicial reform efforts world wide; and a presentation of Norwegian aid to the judicial reform within the broader justice sector. The cases of Norwegian assistance to judicial reform in Guatemala and Ethiopia are given particular attention.