Lise Rakner

Professor at University of Bergen and Affiliated Research Professor
This project is part of the 'Formative Process Research on Integration in Southern Africa (Foprisa)'. This research component is termed 'Norms and Standards of Electoral Processes in SADC', and the paper by Mpanga and Rakner is a concept paper that reviews key concepts and evolving international standards on electoral processes including norms of 'free and fair elections; electoral administration and election observation.

Recent CMI publications: