This report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an input to a proposed study on the impact of aid on Botswana. The report is based on a review of literature focusing on the development of Botswana since independence in 1966. The objective of this review has been to identify the commonly held views and interpretations among the many observers of Botswana's development. The presentation focuses on the main arguments and explanations provided in the literature regarding the success as well as problems of Botswana's development. The report further discusses the main characteristics of development aid to Botswana since independence and identifies inter-connections between international aid and general indicators of Botswana's development found in the literature.