The article is a chapter in a book on international migration. The article discusses two theoretical approaches, liberalism and communitarianism, to the question of membership, particularly how members deal with non-members and what are the admission criteria for membership. Membership is defined and three liberal alternatives, international justice, liberal dialogue and general olbligations, are described in greater detail. Ultimately, the relationship to non-members is indicative of the self-understanding of communities.

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