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Afghanistan's recent history clearly demonstrates that the regional context and external involvement can make or break a peacebuilding processes. In recent years, internal and external divisions have interacted to increase tension both inside Afghanistan and in the wider region. It is therefore in the particular interest of regional states to stabilize the tensions within the area and develop joint approaches towards Afghanistan that can secure a more lasting peace. The Afghan reconstruction process thus offers opportunities for initiatives that might strengthen the forces of peace and cooperation in the region, rather than fuelling intra-regional conflict as has often been the case in the past. The CMI and PRIO organised international conference 'Afghanistan: Peacebuilding in a Regional Perspective', therefore set out (i) to map out regional and international views on how best to organise and support the Afghan peacebuilding process; (ii) to examine thematic issues regarded as important for the peace process; and (iii) to promote contacts between academics engaged in Afghanistan, research institutions and representatives of the Afghan authorities and civil society. Paying particular attention to the regional perspective on peacebuilding, and issues as economic reconstruction, regional security issues and repatriation, reconciliation and human rights, PRIO and CMI was encouraged to a) establish a web page on Afghan peacebuilding in a regional context, b) organize follow-up conference(s) in the region that can address issues of particular importance for the peacebuilding process and c) support efforts to establish an independent and Afghan-based and - run peacebuilding institute.