This report addresses governance issues in post-war situations as these are dealt with in three sets of literature: - the growing case-based knowledge arising from the experience in internationally-assisted transitions from war to peace since the early 1990s. - insofar as these transitions typically intended to establish a democratic post-war order, important insights can be drawn from the more general literature on democratic transitions. - there is increasing evidence that the direction of developments in the post-war phase in important ways is shaped not only by the conflict itself, but by the nature of the peace settlement and the international commitment to the agreement and its implementation As a result, the context of political and economic reconstruction will vary significantly. The report outlines the key institutional components of the relationship between a post-war context and the implementation of a democratic system of governance. After noting the importance of differentiating between types of post-war situations, the report reviews experiences from what is considered to be the most critical governance interventions. These include constitution-making and constitutional design; establishment of watchdog institutions; truth commissions and criminal justice procedures; local governance; security sector reform; elections, forming of electoral systems and political parties; supporting human rights organisations; empowerment projects, and cooperation among divided communities and peace committees. Lastly, major cross-cutting issues are considered, such as pace, sequencing and portfolio mix of governance interventions, building trust and generating reconciliation, and coordination of external actors. This report was originally prepared for the seminar Governance in Post-Conflict Situations organised by UNDP and Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen, Norway, 5-7 May 2004.