Afghanistan has within the span of three years moved from a complex political emergency to a nascent state-building process, a process that is not yet completed. The Afghanistan case is therefore important for learning how foreign aid and foreign NGOs can best assist a fledgling government in promoting peace and rebuilding the country. The report reviews the policies, programmes and projects of two Norwegian NGOs in Afghanistan, the Norwegian Afghanistan Committee (NAC) and Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), during the difficult transitional period 2000-2004.