Africa's marine resources are increasingly in demand and are gaining in geopolitical importance. Competition between key fishing nations for access and control over marine resources is joined by competition between local communities and industrialised foreign fishing fleets. In this context, incentives for a range of illegal activities abound, to which African nations often have weak capacity to respond. The author describes key areas of concern relating to corruption and the exploitation of marine resources in African countries by foreign fishing fleets. Policy reforms that may reduce incentives and opportunities for corruption in fisheries management are also discussed.