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  • Future stability in Afghanistan depends in part upon continued delivery of development assistance throughout the country, albeit at reduced levels, to meet basic needs.
  • Experience demonstrates that delivery of development assistance to Afghan villages and townships is possible, though not without risks, even in a more demanding security environment.
  • Concerns about corruption, access, monitoring and evaluation do not represent an insuperable obstacle for development assistance.
  • An innovative risk management and mitigation approach is needed, entailing flexibility, a high degree of donor coherence, and commitment to a medium- to long-term strategy.
  • Engagement with the new government including through the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework will be essential.