The aim of this report is to describe how the decisions to use results-based payments in Norwegian development cooperation were made and the considerations that formed the basis for these decisions. The report describes the political context and background for the decisions to use results-based payments in the health sector and in the climate and forestry and clean energy initiatives. It discusses the extent to which evidence was used to inform decisions and asks whether the advantages and disadvantages of results-based payments were compared to traditional funding modalities.

Finally, it provides an overview of the theoretical basis for results-based payments as it has evolved and been applied in relation to the Norwegian initiatives.