The internal flight alternative (IFA) is a limit on refugee status that potentially applies when a claimant’s risk of persecution is confined to a specific area of a country. It permits a state to refuse refugee status to a person who faces persecution or similar serious harms in the area of previous residence, but can presumably live safely somewhere else in the country. For example, a young Afghan who resisted forced recruitment by the Taliban in Kunduz may be referred to Kabul for protection.
This study reviews the law and practice of IFA application in Norway in light of international legal standards prescribed by the 1951 Refugee Convention, relevant UNHCR guidance and international human rights law. It focuses particularly on application of the IFA vis-à-vis two specific groups of refugee claimants with Afghan nationality: families with children and unaccompanied and separated minors (UAMs). It concludes that recent legal amendments, and consequent practice changes, constitute a clear breach of Norway's international commitments.
The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law: Treaty basis and scope of application under the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol
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Jessica Schultz and Terje Einarsen
South Sudan “arrivals” in the White Nile State (Sudan). Not citizens, not IDPs, not Refugees: What are they?
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The “CIA’s Army”: A Threat to Human Rights and an Obstacle to Peace in Afghanistan
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