Formal institutions are central actors in natural resource governance decisions and a key arena in which policies, laws and regulations ranging from forest concessions to trade in wildlife products are negotiated and implemented. They operate at levels from local forest management units in provinces, to national wildlife agencies, to powerful ministries of fisheries or forestry. They vary in composition, competencies and mandates, but they are all in some way responsible for some aspect of natural resource governance.

David Aled Williams

Principal Adviser (U4) and Senior Researcher (CMI)