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By analyzing the appropriation process of good governance norms (civil participation, transparency, accountability and the fight against corruption) by civil servants in Rwanda and Burundi, this thesis try to assess the real impact of development policies, within the governance framework. The research emphasizes the influence of bilateral and multilateral donors on state formal structure, but without modifying underlying power relationships, within the state structure. At the contrary, the research shows that a lack of consideration for informal power relations and actors’ cognitive perception during technology transfer may reinforce pre-existing power relationships, as well as the misappropriation and the instrumentalization of the transferred technology.

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