This paper analyses the role of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) during crises, considering their limits and potential.
Besides the diplomatic role in negotiating and mediating access to aid for vulnerable populations, another concept emerges in this analysis: the financial aspect of humanitarian diplomacy. While actors at different levels have to negotiate for access to aid, at the same time this access requires financial sustainability that can contribute to improving the resilience of vulnerable communities. For this purpose, OIC and IsDB can mobilise innovative financing mechanisms when they intervene for ensuring access to aid for conflict-affected populations and play a crucial role in creating a space of dialogue between the international and local levels.
Altea Pericoli is a Doctoral Researcher at the Catholic University of Milan and a visiting PhD at Durham University, the Doha Institute for Graduate Studies, and the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI).
This paper has been published by the Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies (NCHS), a joint initiative of CMI, the Norwegian Institute of Interational Affairs (NUPI) and the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). The NCHS promotes humanitarian research and brings together scholars, practitioners and policy makers to facilitate discussion on humanitarian related issues.
This publication is part of the “Humanitarian Diplomacy: Assessing Policies, Practices and Impact of New Forms of Humanitarian Action and Foreign Policy” project funded by the Research Council of Norway (project number 286859) and led by Antonio De Lauri at CMI.
AAOIFI. (2015). Shariah Standards Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions, Kingdom of Bahrain.
Adiguzel, F. S. & Kuran, T. (2021). The Islamic Waqf: Instrument of Unequal Security, Worldly and Otherworldly. Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (ERID) Working Paper No. 305, Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3836060 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3836060
Ahmed, Z. S. (2018). The Syrian Refugee Crisis and the Role of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). In C. M. Akrivopoulou (eds.), Global Perspectives on Human Migration, Asylum, and Security (pp. 115–126). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-2817-3.ch006
Ahmed, Z. S. & Akbarzadeh, S. (2019). Sectarianism and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Territory, Politics, Governance, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622671.2019.1643779
Akbarzadeh, S. & Ahmed, Z. (2018). Impacts of Saudi Hegemony on the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 31, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10767-017-9270-x
Altunisik, M. (2019). Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: The AKP Model. CMI Brief, Available at: https://www.cmi.no/publications/6973-turkeys-humanitarian-diplomacy-the-akp-model
Barakat, S. & Milton, S. (2020). Localisation Across the Humanitarian-Development-Peace Nexus. Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, 15(2), 147–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/1542316620922805
BouChabke, S. & Haddad, G. (2021). Ineffectiveness, Poor Coordination, and Corruption in Humanitarian Aid: The Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 1–16.
Cunningham, O. (2012). The Humanitarian Aid Regime in the Republic of NGOs: The Fallacy of ‘Building Back Better’.
De Cordier, B. (2009). Faith-Based Aid, Globalisation and the Humanitarian Frontline: An Analysis of Western-Based Muslim Aid Organisations, Disasters, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 608–612, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19207537
De Lauri, A. (2018). Humanitarian Diplomacy: A New Research Agenda. CMI Brief, Available at: https://www.cmi.no/publications/6536-humanitarian-diplomacy-a-new-research-agenda
Fragile States Index. (2020). The Fund for Peace. Retrieved October 10, 2021, Available at: https://fragilestatesindex.org/
IsDB (2020). The Road From Conflict To Reconstruction, Recovery And Resilience In The MENA Region. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/road-conflict-reconstruction-recovery-and-resilience-mena-region-november-2020
IsDB (2019a). Fragility and Resilience Policy. Available at: https://www.isdb.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/2020-02/Fragility%20and%20Resilience%20Policy.pdf
IsDB (2019b). Islamic Development Bank/IFRC to Launch a New Fund to Combat Cholera. Available at: https://www.isdb.org/news/islamic-development-bankifrc-to-launch-a-new-fund-to-combat-cholera
Jati, I. (2017). Comparative Study of the Roles of ASEAN and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in Responding to the Rohingya Crisis.
Kaynak, R. & Tuğer, A. T. (2014). Coordination and Collaboration Functions of Disaster Coordination Centers for Humanitarian Logistics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 109, 432–437.
Lawal, I. M. & Ajayi, J. M. (2019). The Role of Islamic Social Finance Towards Alleviating the Humanitarian Crisis in North-East Nigeria. Jurnal Perspektif Pembiayaan dan Pembangunan Daerah, 6(5), 545–558.
OCHA (2021). Global Humanitarian Overview 2020 Monthly Funding Update – 31 December 2020. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/global-humanitarian-overview-2020-monthly-funding-update-31-december-2020
Régnier, P. (2011). The Emerging Concept of Humanitarian Diplomacy: Identification of a Community of Practice and Prospects for International Recognition. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(884), 1211–1237.
SESRIC (The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries) (2019). Achieving Peace and Security in a World of Turmoil: An Arduous Challenge for the OIC. Resilience Building Studies. Ankara.
SESRIC (The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries) (2017). Humanitarian Crises in OIC Countries. Drivers, Impacts, Current Challenges and Potential Remedies. Ankara.
Turunen, S. (2020). Humanitarian Diplomatic Practices. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 15(4), 459–487.
Veuthey, M. (2012). Humanitarian Diplomacy: Saving It When It Is Most Needed. In A. Vautravers & Y. Fox (ed.), Humanitarian Space and the International Community: 16th Humanitarian Conference (pp. 195–209). Webster University. Geneva.
Humanitarian diplomacy as moral history