This study focuses on the National Conservation Strategies of Botswana and Zambia. The strategies contain detailed elaborations about environmental problems, goals, means and implementation. The implementation of the NCSs depend on a number of conditions and the main part of this analysis discusses whether these efforts are likely to produce the intended changes. The conclusions reached are that the efforts will most likely have effects on governmental performance, but that the effects will probably be unexpected and that some intended effects will not materialise.