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The Sudan is a vast and varied country in terms of its geography and people, defining its social and political relations from the colonial era through independence. The history of Sudanese conflict has been shaped by the country’s geographical setting, social diversity and poor governance. Public policies in the Sudan are as varied as the political structures, constitutions and institutions of governance that have risen and fallen. History reveals that the socio-political structure is dominated by the struggle for power and rights between the centre and periphery. Political disharmony, ethnic distrust, and economic and educational disparity have been the norm in Sudanese society. These factors have contributed to weak political institutions, which could not withstand the challenges of national cohesion and democracy. It is from this background that the ideology of marginalization has gained strength in the Sudanese political landscape. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was written and concluded in this context. The CPA focuses mainly on relations with the federal government in Khartoum with special reference to the Southern Sudan, Blue Nile, Southern Kordofan and Abyei states.