Three myths about engagement and exclusion in responsible investment
There is a move towards more use of engagement strategies in responsible investment. This change in strategies is motivated by a number of claims about the effectiveness of engagement versus exclusion of companies from the investment universe. This paper examines the basis for three central claims: i) That engagement, in contrast to exclusion, does not reduce the investment universe; ii) That exclusion reduces an investor’s influence on a company; and iii) That engagement with exclusion is necessarily a more effective means of influencing companies than pure exclusion. All three claims are argued to be open to challenge. It is possible that the move towards more engagement reflects bureaucratic incentives and political considerations among institutional investors, rather than arguments about the effectiveness and efficiency of engagement.
Provincial variations and entrepreneurialism in the development of China’s Distant Water Fisheries (2011–2020)
Understanding Inequality Within Households
Ingvild Almås, Charlotte Ringdal and Ingrid Hoem Sjursen
Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics