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Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wiig (2015). The challenging dynamics of microcredit in Angola. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Brief 6)

Personal characteristics and capacities are important for whether microcredit clients succeed in business. In particular, a client’s education influences business profitability. However, to benefit from group-based microcredit, clients also need to be in credit groups that develop appropriate norms of solidarity. The education of group members may help develop in-group solidarity, but certain types of within-group heterogeneity can be detrimental to group norms and group survival.