More than half of the world's population live in urban areas. The policies and practices of municipal governments are therefore an integral determinant of the extent to which the Sustainable Development Goals are achieved. Yet poor governance and rampant corruption undermine such efforts. Cities across the world are introducing urban governance initiatives intended to reduce corruption. To maximise the effect of these programmes, we need additional research. The limited evidence that exists suggests that access-to-information, transparency, and citizen engagement can help curb urban corruption.
Curbing grand corruption in ethnically plural societies. The role of corporate responsibility
A case study on corrupt practices in Rwanda provides useful lessons
Tackling petty corruption through social norms theory: lessons from Rwanda