This introductory chapter outlines the distinctions between, on the one hand, political and bureaucratic corruption, and, on the other hand, between extractive and power-preserving corruption. It is argued that the two distinctions are important to understand the breadth and depth of political corruption: political corruption is two interrelated processes that often destroy economies and democracies.
The first is what is called extractive political corruption, which is when political power-holders are enriching themselves by abusing their hold on power to extract from public and private resources. Extractive political corruption is bribery, embezzlement, and fraud for the benefit of individual power-holders and for the regime as such. Bribe taking in public procurement processes is often the biggest source.
The second is what is called extractive political corruption, which is when political power-holders are using the corruptly acquired means (and other state resources and privately held means), in illicit or immoral ways, to maintain and/or strengthen their hold on power. Power-preserving political corruption is to build political support, protection and impunity. It includes favouritism (of which nepotism and clientelism is well known), co-optations and the fraudulent manipulation of institutions. The buying of votes in elections and parliaments is often a part of the picture.
Finally, the chapter argues that the distinction has wide-ranging consequences for research on corruption, because these qualitatively distinct social phenomena require different analytical frameworks, conceptual models, and investigation and data collection methods.
Political Corruption in Africa. Extraction and Power Preservation
Amundsen, Inge (ed.)
Also in this volume:
- Stuck in Transition: Political Corruption as Power Abuse
- Congenitally Conjoined and Inseparable: Politics and Corruption in Nigeria
Ojo, Emmanuel Oladipo, Vaclav Prusa, Inge Amundsen
- The ‘Secret Loans Affair’ and Political Corruption in Mozambique
Nuvunga, Adriano and Aslak Orre
Household Bargaining and Spending on Children: Experimental Evidence from Tanzania
Charlotte Ringdal and Ingrid Hoem Sjursen
Corruption in customs: How can it be tackled?
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, Ernani Checcucci Filho and Gaël Raballand
Enhancing Government Effectiveness and Transparency: The Fight Against Corruption
Interim Governance Arrangements in Post-Conflict and Fragile Settings
Corrupt networks in the Indonesian forestry sector. Politics and pulp in Pelalawan, Riau
A Theory of Change for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. Designing resource governance pathways to improve developmental outcomes
Philippe Le Billon, Päivi Lujala, Siri Aas Rustad
Twenty years with anti-corruption. Part 9. The UK’s changing anti-corruption landscape – new energy, new horizons
Phil Mason OBE
Twenty years with anti-corruption. Part 10. Keeping the vision alive: new methods, new ambitions
Phil Mason OBE