Discussions on sand in Morocco often centre on illegal extraction by sand mafias. This article aims to understand the historical formation of sand extraction near Rabat and the interrelation between legal and illegal extraction. Using a political settlements framework, we aim to contribute to the literature on sand governance. We show how the development of legal frameworks for sand extraction have been closely tied to political settlements and infrastructural development as a key component of the settlement's configuration. This dates back at least to the French Protectorate's urban policy of the “Grands Chantiers” which saw the emergence of the first law pertaining to sand quarries, but can also be seen in more recent times under Mohammed VI, with a resurgence of a public policy of large-scale infrastructure, but also a new sand law. Moreover, the shifts in clientelist politics as part of political settlement development heavily impacted both on the elites engaged in sand mining, as well as the capacity of these elites to engage in both illegal and/or legal sand extraction. Under the current settlement, a new class of businessmen holding private titles to (sand) land have become key players in sand extraction, at the detriment of (military) elites who used to extract sand on state and communal lands, using their close connections to the Makhzen state to allow for illegal extraction. Our article shows that efforts for sustainable sand governance should first takes into account the political relations enabling particular forms of legal and illegal extraction before implementing technical solutions.
Refugees unwelcome: Increasing surveillance and repression of asylum seekers in the “new Moria” refugee camp on Lesvos - NCHS
“Construction, Destruction, and Reconstruction of Palestinian Refugee camps”
Kjersti G. Berg
Reconstructing Oxymorons. Palestinian Refugee camps and the case of Nahr el Bared
(Re)Interpreting corruption in local environments: Disputed definitions, contested conservation, and power plays in Northern Madagascar
Klein, Brian and Mullard, Saul and Ahamadi, Khaladi and Mara, Paul and Mena, Jaolahy and Nourdine, Sam and Rakoto, Marc and Tombozandry, Djazman and Maraina, Ando Vao
"Unleash the hounds!": Wenn Memes und andere Witzfiguren gegen Trolle in den digitalen Informationskrieg ziehen
Eva Johais; Mareike Meis
Bilder des Krieges. Darstellung und Kommunikation des Krieges im digitalen Zeitalter
Stortingskandidaters møter med vold: Er norsk politikk et trygt rom?
Jana Belschner, Ragnhild Muriaas, Vibeke Wang
Pre-colonial politics affects tax compliance in modern day Uganda
Merima Ali and Odd-Helge Fjeldstad
Artisanal Gold Mining Camps in the Butana (Eastern Sudan) as Migration Hubs
Musa Adam Abdul-Jalil
The cost of doing politics in Ireland: What does violence against politicians look like and how is it gendered?
Fiona Buckley, Lisa Keenan, Mack Mariani