Since the early 1990s Southern African countries have seen the transition to multi-party democracies. However, the new democratic dispensation has not produced the expected outputs in terms of tangible benefits for the voters. The democratisation process appears to be confined to mere procedures for electing leaders and for making legitimate decisions. It falls miserably short of generating development or what may be called substantive democracy. This papers is intended to provide a conceptual framework for analysing institutions and substantive policy areas in terms of the output of democratic governance.

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