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In Nigeria, as elsewhere, corrupt practices impair oil sector performance. This U4 Brief looks at five approaches to advancing anti-corruption reform in Nigeria’s oil sector: the legal and regulatory framework; open and competitive award procedures; process and revenue transparency; investigation and prosecution of corruption; and oversight and accountability measures. The state of reform in each area is addressed, as are ways forward of potential interest to donors in the country. The Brief is the second in a two-part series: the first describes the most likely sites of corruption in the governance of Nigeria’s oil sector. The series aims not only to provide insights into anti-corruption related reform in Nigeria but also in other oil-rich countries that receive development assistance.