The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of 2005 provided southern Sudanese with the right to self-determination through a referendum vote that took place January 9–15, 2011. Formal results will be announced at the end of January, but reliable reports indicate an overwhelming vote for independence. While the CPA provides a six-month transition period following the referendum, and negotiations have begun on post-referendum issues, a great many contentious issues remain to be settled. Central among them is the question of how nationality and citizenship will be defined and handled in a future North Sudan and South Sudan.