Under Sudan’s Criminal Act (1991), rape is defined as zina (adultery and fornication) without consent. This means that the strict rules of evidence used for zina are also applied to rape. Women activists have contested this legal position, despite government repression of those advocating reform. Data from 50 interviews in 2011, 2012, and 2013 show that criminal law reform on rape/zina is politicized and polarized, with little dialogue between the government and women activists. The 2005 peace agreement and the Interim National Constitution sparked a review of Sudan’s laws, while the outbreak of armed conflict in Darfur and the International Criminal Court indictment of President al-Bashir focused attention on sexual violence in Sudanese society. These developments have furthered debate on legal reform of rape/zina provisions, including the controversial topic of marital rape. But in this highly politicized environment, reform advocates find their space for maneuver is small.
Citizenship, statelessness, and human rights protection in Sudan's constitutions and post South Sudan secession challenges
Constitution-making and Human Rights in the Sudans
Counter-mobilization against child marriage reform in Africa
Ragnhild L. Muriaas, Liv Tønnessen, Vibeke Wang
Political Studies, first published online: December 1, 2017
Interventions for the abandonment of child marriage in Sudan
Liv Tønnessen and Samia al-Nagar
Når kan kvoteringsordninger for kvinner i politikken fjernes?
Review of the realisation of Norway’s “Strategy for intensifying international efforts for the elimination of female genital mutilation for the period 2014–2017”
The Monkey Cage at the Washington Post: Why Campaigns to Stop Child Marriage Can Backfire
Ragnhild L. Muriaas, University of Bergen, Vibeke Wang, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Lindsay Benstead, Portland State University, Boniface Dulani, University of Malawi, Lise Rakner, University of Bergen/Chr. Michelsen Institute