This report, commissioned by NORAD through the Research Council of Norway, maps the institutional research situation in Uganda and Zimbabwe with a view to suggesting possible support approached on the part of NORAD. The report is thus rather more a forward-looking input to NORAD's strategy for support to the research community at the country level, than a retrospective review of performance to date. With regard to the country-specific recommendations the review team may appear to have adopted contradictory positions. In the Uganda case the recommended overall posture is to relate primarily to the central level through the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, with the exception of major institution-building efforts directed at key institutions of higher learning and research, e.g. Makerere University and the National Agricultural Research Organisation. By contrast, in the Zimbabwe case the recommended mode of operation is a decentralised one. However, this contradiction is only apparent. The consistency becomes evident by pointing out that the principle of recipient orientation has been applied in both cases; in Uganda the preference is for a centralised model, whereas the opposite obtains in the case of Zimbabwe.