Along with the ecological crisis and the threat of nuclear weapons, poverty is today's primary moral and political challenge. The response of the rich world is intermittent humanitarian action and aid interventions. But are we really serious about tackling the fundamental causes of poverty? On the contrary, it appears that the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. This book asserts that without knowledge there is a risk of going astray with compassion alone as guideline. Without knowledge our reform efforts will go to waste. Without knowledge we will not know how to prioritise. Such knowledge can help us to prevent the struggle against poverty becoming a struggle against the poor.