Protection of Civilians: From Principle to Practice
With the increase in civilian casualties and suffering in contemporary conflict, the protection of civilians (PoC) became a central concern in the international community in the late 1990s. While considerable normative progress has been made by the UN and the humanitarian community, PoC has been insufficiently operationalized and institutionalized on the ground. Research has so far focused on PoC as a principle; we know little about what counts as PoC in practice, how intended beneficiaries view protection efforts, and how PoC efforts may be improved.
This project thus explores the research question: What is the role and impact of contemporary policies and practices of PoC? We will answer this question by (1) examining how the principle of PoC is operationalized on the ground by humanitarian, security, and other actors; (2) situating these practices through field-based analyses of the security situation of intended beneficiaries, including displaced people and vulnerable groups (women, children and indigenous peoples); (3) ascertaining how the implementation of PoC programs affects and is experienced by these groups and the wider host communities; and (4) drawing lessons for how the efficiency and legitimacy of the studied PoC efforts might be improved in light of organizational, political and ethical preconditions.
The project features a multi-disciplinary team (anthropology, history, law, geography, philosophy and political science) whose work willbe organized into three work packages: Local Practices, case studies of Afghanistan, Colombia, the Sudans, Uganda, Liberia, and the Horn of Africa; International Policies, case studies of PoC in light of institutionalization processes, the veto powers, and emerging powers; and Comparison, Ethics and Policy Implications, analysis of the political, organizational and ethical conditions for various policy options.
The project will be organized under the newly established Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies (NCHS).
Reform of the rape law in Sudan: Lip service to the International Criminal Court
Enemies of the state: Curbing women activists advocating rape reform in Sudan
Journal of International Women's Studies
Women and Girls Caught between Rape and Adultery in Sudan: Criminal Law Reform, 2005–2015
Liv Tønnessen and Samia al-Nagar
Impunity and the conflation of rape and adultery in Sudan’s Criminal Act: Women’s Mobilization to Reform Sudan’s Rape Laws
Sexual Violence in Conflict Torn Darfur: Local Activists’ Perspectives
From Principle to Practice: US Military Strategy and Protection of Civilians in Afghanistan
Curbing Women Activists in Darfur in the wake of the International Criminal Court
Human Security 15 Years after Lysøen: The Case against Drone Killings
Asian Journal of Peacebuilding
Impunity and the conflation of rape and adultery in Sudan’s Criminal Act
Complex realities and astute actors: Sudanese women's activism and UN Security Council Resolution 1325
The Background, the Substance and the Critique of UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820
Norwegian non-military collaboration with Afghanistan: A slightly different approach
A critical look at civil society and peace building in Sudan (in arabic)
Bulletin of Sudanese Studies
The Limits of Law: Abortion in the Middle East and Northern Africa
Irene Maffi and Liv Tønnessen
Health and Human Rights Journal
A Critique of the Humanitarian (B)order of Things
Antonio De Lauri
Journal of Identity and Migration Studies
The right to abortion in Tunisia after the revolution of 2011: Legal, medical and social arrangements seen through seven abortion stories
Irene Maffi and Malika Affes
Health and Human Rights Journal
Gender parity and the symbolic representation of women in Senegal
The Journal of Modern African Studies