Protection of Civilians: From Principle to Practice
With the increase in civilian casualties and suffering in contemporary conflict, the protection of civilians (PoC) became a central concern in the international community in the late 1990s. While considerable normative progress has been made by the UN and the humanitarian community, PoC has been insufficiently operationalized and institutionalized on the ground. Research has so far focused on PoC as a principle; we know little about what counts as PoC in practice, how intended beneficiaries view protection efforts, and how PoC efforts may be improved.
This project thus explores the research question: What is the role and impact of contemporary policies and practices of PoC? We will answer this question by (1) examining how the principle of PoC is operationalized on the ground by humanitarian, security, and other actors; (2) situating these practices through field-based analyses of the security situation of intended beneficiaries, including displaced people and vulnerable groups (women, children and indigenous peoples); (3) ascertaining how the implementation of PoC programs affects and is experienced by these groups and the wider host communities; and (4) drawing lessons for how the efficiency and legitimacy of the studied PoC efforts might be improved in light of organizational, political and ethical preconditions.
The project features a multi-disciplinary team (anthropology, history, law, geography, philosophy and political science) whose work willbe organized into three work packages: Local Practices, case studies of Afghanistan, Colombia, the Sudans, Uganda, Liberia, and the Horn of Africa; International Policies, case studies of PoC in light of institutionalization processes, the veto powers, and emerging powers; and Comparison, Ethics and Policy Implications, analysis of the political, organizational and ethical conditions for various policy options.
The project will be organized under the newly established Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies (NCHS).
Enemies of the State: Curbing Women Activists Advocating Rape Reform in Sudan
Journal of International Women's Studies
Women and Girls Caught between Rape and Adultery in Sudan: Criminal Law Reform, 2005–2015
Liv Tønnessen and Samia al-Nagar
Impunity and the conflation of rape and adultery in Sudan’s Criminal Act: Women’s Mobilization to Reform Sudan’s Rape Laws
Sexual Violence in Conflict Torn Darfur: Local Activists’ Perspectives
From Principle to Practice: US Military Strategy and Protection of Civilians in Afghanistan
Curbing Women Activists in Darfur in the wake of the International Criminal Court
Human Security 15 Years after Lysøen: The Case against Drone Killings
Asian Journal of Peacebuilding
Gender Based Violence: Emerging Research Agendas
Complex realities and astute actors: Sudanese women's activism and UN Security Council Resolution 1325
The Background, the Substance and the Critique of UN Resolutions 1325 and 1820
Norwegian non-military collaboration with Afghanistan: A slightly different approach
Adultery, rape, and escaping the house: The protection and policing of female sexuality in Afghanistan
Family law reform in Sudan: competing claims for gender justice between sharia and women’s human rights
Samia El Nagar, Liv Tønnessen
Traditional, but changing, cultural norms: rural community views on child marriage in Algadaref State, Sudan
Samia El Nagar, Ibtisam al-Jack, Liv Tønnessen
The Great Escape? Converging Refugee Crises in Tyre, Lebanon
Are John Knudsen
Refugee Survey Quarterly
What causes Latin America’s high incidence of adolescent pregnancy?
Camila Gianella, Marta Rodriguez de Assis Machado, Angelica Peñas Defago
Counter-mobilization against child marriage reform in Africa
Ragnhild Louise Muriaas, Liv Tønnessen, Vibeke Wang