This article explores the effects of the ambiguous recognition of indigenous or “customary” law in Mexico on the struggle of indigenous women to ensure their rights are respected. After outlining the history of legal changes to recognize indigenous law, I analyze three paradigmatic cases: Eufrosina Cruz Mendoza and rights to political participation; Inés Fernández Ortega and Valentina Cantú and rights to physical security; and Nestora Salgado García and the criminalization of indigenous autonomies in a context of the spread of organized crime, revealing the Mexican government’s inconsistent approaches to recognizing indigenous peoples and women’s rights.

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