Refugees in the City: Urban Displacement, Development and Donor Policies in the Middle East ]
The Middle East has one of the world's highest urbanization levels, the greatest socio-economic inequality and is a premier displacement region. This proposal studies refugees and IDPs in fragile Middle East host states to provide a comprehensive information base essential for designing humanitarian and development policies that can serve both the displaced and host communities. Refugees and IDPs typically settle in cities and towns among urban poor in inner-city slums and impoverished neighbourhoods, areas that can become potential poverty-traps. While cities offer economic opportunities, employment and services, displacement crises often turn protracted and strain local infrastructure, service provision and host communities. These features also apply to the Syrian refugee population. Aiding large number of urban displaced is therefore a major challenge to humanitarian policy. Unable to the address the root causes of displacement, the international community is searching for better polices to address displacement in fragile host countries as this is not only a key development challenge, but also an opportunity: towns and cities offer better prospects for medium-term integration and self-reliance than do traditional rural and camp-based responses. To this end, there has been a transition from person-centric (rights-based) towards site-centric (place-based) approaches integrated in a comprehensive developmental approach to urban displacement. This project seeks to add to these efforts by investigating the key elements needed for instituting an area-based urban response for Middle East refugees and IDPs. Better data of this kind is essential for formulating targeted and hence effective aid strategies, and a pre-condition for well-coordinated policies at different levels. In particular, the data will make it possible to formulate are-based policy measures at different levels that can support settlement in cities and towns and reduce vulnerabilities.
Humanitarian Militarism and the Production of Humanity
Antonio De Lauri
The plain drone, the armed drone and human security
Handbook of Intervention and Statebuilding